Mango Research Institute, Multan



What are the main steps to establish a new mango orchard? Top
Selection of site, soil and water analysis and selection of varieties have paramount importance to establish new orchards.  
What should be the planting geometry to establish new orchard of mango?  

To establish a new orchard of mango the best planting distance is under:

  • Row to row distance (E – W) = 27 feet
  • Plant to plant distance (N – S) = 22 feet
  • Average number of plants in one acre = 73
Why and when pruning is necessary in mango orchards? Top
Pruning is the judicious removal of unwanted plant parts, dried / diseased wood for establishment of ideal plant structure, improved tree health and also to maximize the fruiting wood to enhance fruit yield and improve quality. It is useful practice to maintain the mango tree size within desirable limits offered by the planting distance, so that many farm practices like application of insecticides & fungicides become more effective to get better & efficient control of insects and diseases to enhance yield and improve quality.  
When to irrigate the mango trees? Top
During the water requirement period, irrigation become essential when 2/3 area under the tree canopy achieve dry friable conditions. The quantity of irrigation water can vary depending upon locality, temperature and soil type. Never irrigate wet soil as it causes root rot due to suffocation in root zone which ultimately reduce nutrition and water uptake. Each irrigation quantum should be of 3 acre inches for mango orchards.   
What is the best time for fertilizer application in mango? Top
In mango trees, the major nutrition is applied immediately after fruit harvest comprising of 70% Nitrogen, 100% phosphorous and 50% Potash of the total annual requirement while the remaining of N is applied at flowering and K after fruit setting.  
What is the role of Boron in fruit development? Top
Boron facilitates the germination of pollen tube and reduces the time taken between pollination and fertilization. If boron is deficient in the plant, the pollen tube will grow slowly and the ovule would be expired before the pollen nucleus could be released in the ovule. So, Boron deficiency leads to either no fruit set or production of parthenocarpic fruits which drop down at later stage after splitting.  
What are the precautionary measures against frost?   Top
Mango trees are very sensitive to frost and get damaged if not properly protected. Make your plants ready to face the frost by offering water stress a month before the winter season. The proper converge of small plants, irrigation of orchards before the expected frost spell during critical frost expected nights are useful practices to minimize the plant damage. However the spray of lime solution on small plants is also a best total in management against frost.   
What is the cultural control of inflorescence midge? Top

The cultural control against inflorescence midge includes hoeing, scrapping of the soil under the tree canopies, irrigation (at friable soil condition) from February- March at the stage of pupation in the soil because the maggots don’t have the ability to bore into the soil and they search for natural cracks and openings to pupate in the soil. Similarly the hoeing / scrapping or irrigation trap the population prevailing in soil.

What are different management options against Fruit Fly? Top

The management options against Fruit Fly are:

  • Collection and destroying the infested fruits both dropped and harvested, helps in reducing population significantly.
  • Installation of sex pheromone traps @ 5-6 traps / acre by using Methy Eugenol for control of male fruit fly
  • Spray of bait prepared by mixing 300ml protein hydrolysate, 30ml Malathion and remaining 6970ml water. This bait should be sprayed @100ml / plant at shady and non bearing branches with interval of 15 days for management of Female fruit fly.
  • Bagging of fruits protects it from egg laying of fruit fly.
  • Early harvesting of mature unripe fruits before ripening (when hard) is also suggested to save the fruit from attack.
  • Hot water treatment of fruit at specific temperature for the set period is useful.
  • Avoid planting host plants like citrus, guava and ber etc. 
What are the main flower diseases prevailing in mango orchards? Top
Apical necrosis blossom blight, powdery meldew and malformation are the major flower diseases in mango.  
What are the field defects of fruit in mango? Top
Sunburn, sapburn, blemishes, vivipary and deformation are the field defects of fruit in mango.  
What are decline disorders of mango orchards? Top
Die back, twig blight, gummosis, back splitting, wilting and branch wilting/leaf leathering and sudden death worth mentioning decline disorders of mango orchards.  
What are the predisposing factors of mango sudden death diseases? Top
Improper Irrigation, root injuries, high soil pH, and predisposing factors of mango sudden death.  
What does mean by IPM/IDM? Top
IPM means integrated Pest Management while IDM mean integrated disease management. IPM and IDM contain resistance cultural, biological chemical management options.  
What are the quarantine pests of mangoes? Top
Fruit fly, scales, bacterial spot, phomopsis rot are quarantine pests of mangoes.    
How many chemical spray fall in the best module of disease management?  Top
Seven sprays viz. before flowering, day flowering, after flowering, after fruit setting, day fruit development, before harvest and after harvest are necessary required for adequate control of mango diseases.  
What percentage of field control is achieved through a recommended module of sprays? Top
Almost 70% of mango disease are managed with the module of 07 sprays. Left over infestation 30% is overcome with post-harvest treatment of mangoes.  
What management strategy should be adopted to control anthracnose in mango orchards? Top
Pruning of trees for better light penetration and air circulation inside the orchard is very helpful to manage the disease inoculums at minimum level round the year. However infection can be controlled effectively by 2-3 sprays of contact or systemic fungicides during spring season at 10-12 days interval and post harvest application of fungicide on the plants is very useful to control primary infection of this disease. Similarly use of nitrogen fertilizer intelligently as excessive nitrogen is one of the important predisposing factor of this disease.    
How can we test fruit maturity of mangoes? Top
The visual indices of at maturing fruit include changes in the color of skin from dark green to light green, appearance of wax coating on skin, smoothening of the skin, distinct appearance of lenticels and extended shoulder development. Mango maturity testing guides for Sindhri and Chaunsa S.B and Sufaid Chaunsa have been developed in Pakistan. These guides provide coding for pulp color changes with maturity and variety. However refractometer can also be used for reading of total soluble solids (TSS) or sugars as Brix, which is correlated with fruit maturity.    
Is Ultra High Density plantation possible for mango in Pakistan?  Top
The studies are under way still this system is not recommended in Pakistan.