Fodder Research Institute, Sargodha

What is the Source of quality fodder seed?

The source of good quality seed is the Punjab Seed Corporation and the institutes related to that crop.  

What are the ways to get better and high yield of fodder crops?

For better yield the latest production technology should be adopted with the consultation of Extension Worker  

How to get balance nutritional fodder?

A balance nutritional fodder can be produced through mix cropping of leguminous and non-leguminous fodder  i.e. Sorghum + Guara, Sesbania + pearl millet, or Oat + Berseem  

How to preserve Surplus fodder?

We can preserve the surplus fodder through Hay or Silage making.  

What is the difference between Hay and silage?

Hay is the simply sun drying of surplus fodder while silage is produced through a process which involve the following steps 
  • Chopping of fodder crop  
  • Treatment of chopped fodder with urea fertilizer at a particular ratio
  • Dumping of the silage material into air tight bunker
  • Feeding of the silage to the animals when fully prepared 

How to overcome the fodder scarcity period? 


To overcome the fodder scarcity in summer season early sowing (Feb.-March) of Maize and S.S.Hybrid is recommended while in winter season late sowing of Maize and Pearl Millet is preferred. Perennial Lucerne production can help us to overcome the scarcity period.


How to control major insects in berseem and lucerne crop? 

Army worm and American bollworm mostly attack both fodder and seed crop of lucerne and berseem
For fodder avoid use of chemicals and take early cut to avoid further damage. Selective insecticides may also apply just after cutting. For seed crops spray the following chemicals for above mentioned crops 
  • Emmamectin benzoate @ 250ml/A
  • Steward @ 200ml/A
  • Lufeneuran @200ml/A
  • Belt @50ml/A
  • Coragen@50-80 ml/A

What  is the control of  insects of sorghum and maize that attack the crop initially after germination?

Treat the seed before sowing of sorghum and maize seed  
  • Imidacloprid @ 5-7 g/Kg Seed
  • Thiamethoxam @5g/Kg seed

Spray the crop with 

  • lambdacyhalothrin @400ml/A  or 
  • Bifenthrin @ 300-350ml /A

After 10-15 days after germination depending upon pest status. For seed crops apply granular insecticides for the control of maize stem borer in both crops.

  • Furadan @8 Kg/A  or
  • Fipronil6Kg/A

What are the precautionary measures against “hemorrhagic septicemia virus” HSV ( Ghal Ghootoo)  in Buffalos?


Vaccinate the animals (Buffalos) with HS Vaccine twice/year. 1st during the month of June & 2nd in Decermber.


What are the precautionary measures against root rot disease of berseem?


Don’t apply heavy irrigation to berseem especially after rain fall & take early cut of berseem to avoid lodging which is a major cause of this disease.


How much fertilizers should be used in fodder crops?

This information can get from Extention Worker.    

What are the symptoms of root rot in berseem?


Light Brown Spots appears on roots 5cm below the soil surface. In case of severe attack plant die. Root rot of berseem  appears  usually after the second cut but can appear later.


Can we spray the fodder crops against Insect pests?

Generally not recommended, to secure the animals health.  
What are the insect pests that can attack on Sorghum & Maize especially on germination stage? Top
Shoot fly & borer   

What are the symptoms of white mold in berseem?


Initially symptoms are visible during pod development, leaves will wilt and turn brown, curling and dying.


How can we produce pure seed of any fodder crop?

Timely rouging of off type of plants.  

What are the importance of mix cropping of berssem with oats?

Green fodder yield of first  cut of  berseem & oats increases due to mix cropping  

What is a guar crop?


Guar is a drought tolerant, summer annual legume crop, well adapted to arid and semi-arid regions of Pakistan


What is guar gum and its uses?


Guar seed is a source of very valuable product called “Galactomannan” (guar gum, 25- 35%) derived from its endosperm. Guar gum has diversified industrial applications and is used everywhere and in every product e.g. food, pharmaceuticals, textile industry, drugs, paper, cosmetic, tobacco, oil & gas well drilling, hydraulic fracking, fish farming, poultry and cattle feed, paint, leather, firefighting, explosive, beverages, confectionary, dairy products, baby pampers, photography, mining, construction and so on.


Where are main areas of guar cultivation in Pakistan?


In Pakistan, guar is grown on an area of 198336ha (479378 acres). The core areas of guar cultivation are Bhakkar, Layyah, Khushab, D.G. Khan and Sargodha in Punjab and Tharparkar in Sindh


What are the benefits for growing guar?

Guar is grown for fodder, vegetable, grain and green manuring purposes  

Can guar be grown on marginal/low fertile lands?

Yes, it can be grown on marginal lands as it requires very low inputs  

What is optimum sowing time of guar?


The optimum sowing time depends on the purpose of sowing i.e. for vegetable/green manuring/fodder purpose it is 15Feb.-15March and for grain or seed purpose, it is 01-June to 30 June in irrigated areas and upto July in Barani areas


What is irrigation requirement of guar crop?


Although, guar crop has ability to tolerate water stress conditions, however, to obtain better yield, irrigation at proper time and growth stage provides good results. Normally, the crop requires 2-3 irrigations after sowing.


What is fertilizer requirement of guar crop?


Guar is a leguminous crop. Therefore, it requires less amount of nitrogenous fertilizers. However, application of one bag of DAP or three bags of SSP along with half bag of Urea at the time of sowing and half bag of urea at flowering stage results in better yield.


What are the names of approved varieties of guar?


There are four approved varieties of guar in Pakistan namely 2/1, BR-90, BR-99 and BR-2017.


Is there any attack of insect pest and diseases on guar?


The pure and good quality seed of approved varieties is available at Agricultural Research Station, Bahawalpur and Punjab Seed Corporation Farm, Piplan

Is there any attack of insect pest and diseases on guar? Top

Attack of some sucking pests like jassid and white fly have been seen on guar which can be controlled by spraying suitable pesticides. Few diseases are known to infect guar like wilt, bacterial blight and leaf alternaria. Root rot (Fusarium sp.) can be a problem where soil drainage is poor. These diseases can be controlled by crop rotations, seed treatment and spraying crop with suitable fungicides in consultation with Agri. staff

Is there any specific machinery for harvesting guar crop? Top

There is no specific harvesting machinery for guar. At maturity, crop is harvested manually and wheat thresher is used for threshing