Mango is a delicious fruit grown in almost all the tropical and subtropical countries of the world and is the second largest fruit crop of Pakistan after citrus and is being grown 174 thousand hectares with annual production of 1784 thousand tones of fruit (International Trade Centre; Trade Map). Mango Research Station, Shujabad was established in 1972-73 by the Government of Punjab to handle different problems of mango industry and in recent past the Federal and Provincial Governments remained kind enough to sanction different development projects to conduct research on elite concerns of Mango Industry and these remain handy to solve many problems and to boost the export of quality mangoes direct from growers to super markets of the world. This research station conducted the meaningful research work in the recent past to address different problems and to create awareness among the mango growers regarding the key elements of production technology for production of quality fruit and manage different diseases and insects by integrated approach.
Following are the research activities of the station:
Establishment of Codes of Practices (COPs) for mango upto post harvest level (UNIDO TRTA II Project)
Clean nursery (Nutrition, Grafting) (2)
Survey for selection of promising mango strains (1)
Breeding Work (1)
Documentation and Registration of Mango Germplas (1)
- Irrigation (1)
- Control of tree size ( Nitrogen, Canopy Management) (2)
- Flower induction and Control of fruit drop (2)
Survey for Selection of Promising Mango Strains
In the fruit plants, three conventional methods, i.e., selection, introduction and breeding are adopted for the evolution of novel varieties. Breeding is fairly luxurious and time consuming in mango but is being experienced, at this Research Station. Selection and introduction have been found more victorious and creative as most of the mango varieties have been developed by these methods.
To select the new strains of mangoes with promising characteristics (especially in mid season).
Intensive survey of Punjab and Sind Provinces are being made and promising mango strains are being selected along with introduction of exotic poly-embryonic strains from Australia and other countries for use as rootstock.
The Effects of Different Doses of Nitrogen Application on Plant Yield and Fruit Quality in Annually Pruned Mango trees c.v. Chaunsa Sammar bahisht
The experiment was initiated to determine the optimum nitrogen level for a mango tree after the post harvest pruning to maximize plant yield and yield stability.
To determine the minimum nitrogen requirement for post harvest application to the pruned trees to support after harvest vegetative growth.
After harvest in July-August pruning is conducted (plant height 7-8m and canopy radius 5-6m maintained in case of each tree, planted at a distance of 40feet between rows and plants).. After the pruning and fungicide application the complete dose of P2O5 (1000gm), K2O (1000gm) applied in August and rest of the treatments applied at their respective times. The PP333 applied with start of new growth in all the plants under experiments.
The Effects of Different Doses of pp333 on Tree Flowering and Yield in Annually Pruned Mango Trees c.v. Chaunsa sammar bahisht
This experiment was initiated to determine the minimum level of PP333 required to ensure the flowering in post harvest vegetative growth of mango plants.
To determine the minimum level of PP333 required to ensure flowering in post harvest vegetative growth of mango plants CV Chaunsa Sammar Bahisht.
After harvest in August pruning conducted to maintain tree size and Fungicide application was done immediately after the pruning. After the pruning and fungicide application nutrition applied i.e. Nitrogen 500g, P2O5 (1000gm), K2O (1000gm) in August and PBZ applied with start of new growth in all the plants under experiments while remaining 500g Nitrogen per plant applied during flowering.
Hybridization in Mango to Evolve New Varieties With Superior Traits
This project was initiated to evolve new mango varieties having superior traits of tree and fruit, to meet the demand of national as well as international markets.
To evolve new mango varieties having resistance against different insects and diseases with better quality, to meet the demand of national as well as international markets.
Before crossing, the pollen sacs from the male flowers would be collected early in the morning in Petri dishes with the help of fine alcoholic sterilized forceps and the same placed in incubator at 25 o C for about two hours to become dehiscent. Then these pollen sacs would be stirred in 5% α-d-glucose solution on the magnetic stirrer for about 5 minutes to release the pollens from the sacs.
Healthy inflorescences would be selected and all the flowers from lateral rachi would be clipped by leaving about 100 flowers at the tip of each inflorescence. The clipped inflorescence would be covered with muslin cloth ringed bags. On the next day at about 8.0 am, the muslin bags removed and opened flowers pollinated by placing one drop of pollen solution in the cup of partially opened petals and the same procedure carried out till the last flower to be pollinated.
Documentation of Mango Germplasm for Its Registration & Approval
This project was initiated with the objective to document the different characteristics of mango germplasm available in the mango region of Pakistan, so that documentation / registration of the same could be made with FSC & RD, Islamabad.
Mango is being cultivated since long in Pakistan but no variety / strain has been documented / approved and registered with the Government so far. So, this documentation is the basic step to get registration and approval of mango varieties in Pakistan.
Stage-1: Vegetative growth after harvest. The vegetative growth’s data regarding tree habit and leaf characteristics would be recorded
Stage-2: Flowering and Fruit setting. The data regarding inflorescence would be recorded. Furthermore, the resistance and susceptibility against different pests and diseases would also be noted
Stage-3: Fruit development upto harvest. During this stage the data regarding mature fruit, stone and market acceptability would be recorded
Standardization of water requirement under each phenological stage of Mango Plant cv. Sindhri
This experiment has been initiated to find out the optimum level of soil moisture in the root zone required under each phenological stage of mango plant to get maximum yield of good quality fruits.
To find out the optimum level of soil moisture in the root zone required under each phonological stage of mango plant.
- Under each treatment the requisite moisture level maintained throughout the year
- The soil moisture monitored by Moisture Meter with Profile Probe for mineral soil
- During the first fortnight of August, the plants pruned for resizing to maintain canopy at the level of 35/ diameter & 25/ height
- The relative humidity and ambient temperature would be recorded on daily basis
- The leaf samples would be collected near to maturity of post harvest vegetative growth to analyze for N,P,K and B.
Standardization of Nutrition Requirements for the Rapid Growth of Pot Plants
This experiment was initiated to determine the appropriate nutrition required for the mango potted plants. Two sources of nutrition are being tested i-e N.P.K having 20% of each ingredient and micronutrient and macronutrient mixture (Solu Plant).
The chemical composition of Solu Plant is given below;
N-Total= 20% P2O5 = 20% K2O= 20% Fe* = 1000ppm Mn*= 500ppm B = 200ppm
Zn*= 150ppm Cu*= 110ppm Mo= 70 ppm *(EDTA Chelated)
The objective of the experiment is to find out the appropriate nutrition requirements for the achieved potting mix (Bagasse:Silt:Coconut fiber) to keep the seedlings in nonstop growth conditions.
The different media ingredients procured 6 – 7 months before planting season. After partial decomposition of bagasse the standardized proportion on volume basis i.e. 65:30:5 prepared, physical and chemical properties of the media being tested. The seedlings were sown separately, after that black polythene bags filled with media and saturated to achieve the maximum shrinkage before transplanting of seedlings and finally nutrition applied according to the treatments after one month of transplaning.
Control of fruit drop in Mango cv. Anwar retaul through the use of Different Chemicals Brief Description
In mango varieties Anwar Retaul is shy bearer that’s why its cultivation is being reduced due to low yield but on account of its delicious taste and popularity in local market it is sold at maximum premium. Therefore, this experiment is being designed to develop certain protocols that may enhance its yield.
To reduce the fruit drop at different stages and to strengthen its retention on the plant.
100 fruiting panicles on each plant tagged (20 on each side and 20 from inside the tree) after the completion of fruit setting in the 2nd week of April, Boron applied at peak flowering, Potassium Nitrate 15 days before flowering and NAA in Mid April.
Standardization of Grafting Technique Required For the Potting Plants To Get Clean Plants Of Desired Variety
The experiment was designed to develop most suitable grafting techniques for grafting of young nursery plants.
To find out the best grafting technique required for the potting plants to market the plant in shortest possible time.
The scion wood from selected commercial varieties Chaunsa Sammar Bahist, Sindhri and Chaunsa White will be defoliated one week before grafting. The grafting will be carried out during active plant growth stage. 100 plants will be grafted under each treatment. The plastic covering partially removed when graft wood start sprouting and removed completely after healing of graft union.
Effect of Potassium Nitrate to Induce Flowering and Enhance yield in Mango cv. Chaunsa (s.b)
The experiment was designed to develop certain protocols to find out the most suitable application time of potassium nitrate to get regular fruiting from Chaunsa Sammar Bahisht cv.
To break dormancy and promote early and uniform flowering so that uniform and more fruit setting may be achieved.
100 fruiting panicles on each plant tagged (20 on each side and 20 from inside the tree) before commencement of flowering in the 1st week of February, first spray carried out in the 2nd week of February and 2nd ensured after 10 days.
|Abdul Ghaffar Grewal|