Wheat Research Institute, Faisalabad

 

What is Bran?

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Bran is the outer covering of shell of wheat kernels

 

 

What is whole flour?

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Whole flour is flour retaining all the fiber and goodness of the whole grain.

 

 

What is gluten?

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Gluten is one of the key to making a successful loaf of whole-wheat bread. It is a network of fiber strands within the bread dough, which trap the gases created by the yeast fermentation or other leaveners, causing the bread to rise. When there is not enough gluten, the bread cannot rise to its potential height, resulting in the dense, heavy breads which cause many people to give up when experimenting with baking whole-wheat bread.

 

 

How do I identify yellow /stripe, brown /leaf, black/stem rust and karnal bunt diseases?

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Yellow Rust (Puccina striiformis): The pustules of stripe rust, which contain yellow to orange-yellow urediospores, usually form narrow strips on the leaves. Pustules also can be found on leaf sheath, necks and glumes
Brown rust (Puccina triticina): Pustules are circular or slightly elliptical, smaller than those of stem rust do not usually coalesce and contain masses of orange to orange brown urediospores. Infection sites are found on the upper surface of leaves and leaves sheath and occasionally on neck and awns
Black rust (Puccina graminis): Pustules are dark reddish brown and may occur on the both sides of the leaves, stem and spike. With lighter infection the pustules are usually separated and scattered but with heavey infection they may coalesce
Karnal Bunt (Tilletia indica): This disease is not easily detected prior to harvest. Following harvest diseased kernel can be easily detected by visual inspection; a mass of black teliospores replaces a portion of endosperm, and the pericarp may be intact or ruptured. Disease kernel gives off a fetid or fishy smell when crushed.

 

 

What is Crop rotation?

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This will allow enough time for infested residue to decompose before the next cereal crop is seeded thus help to slow down the buildup of infested crop residues

 

 

What is Variety selection?

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Sow resistant varieties, which will help to reduce the risk of disease attack.

 

 

What is wheat aphid, its infestation time and symptoms?

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Wheat aphids are light green with cigar shaped bodies. Cornicles (tailpipe structures typical of aphids) are absent. These insects are usually located within the rolled portion of the leaves, within the boot, or in trapped heads. Aphid infestation is very low in January due to cold but start increasing in February. It touches peak in mid-March and thereafter dropped.