- What is Basmati rice?
- What is Long grain / Non-Basmati rice?
- What is coarse/medium rice?
- What is hybrid rice?
- What are Rice Zones in Pakistan?
- What type of rice varieties are being cultivated in Pakistan?
- What are the approved varieties of rice?
- What is the seed rate for Basmati and Coarse grain rice varieties?
- What is the time of nursery sowing for coarse/medium and basmati varieties?
- What are the different methods of nursery sowing?
- What is seed treatment in rice?
- What are the different methods for field preparation for transplanting of nursery?
- What is the proper age of nursery?
- What is the recommended plant population per acre?
- What is direct seeding of rice?
- What is mechanical sowing of rice?
- What are the recommended doses of fertilizers for Basmati and Coarse grain varieties? What is the proper time of application of different fertilizers?
- What is the irrigation/water requirement for rice crop?
- What are different weeds of rice crop?
- What are the critical stages of weeds?
- What are the control measures for weeds in nursery and standing crop?
- What is IPM in rice?
- How to control different pests/ insects?
- What is insect injury?
- What is damage?
- What is ETL?
- What is Economic Injury Level (EIL)?
- What are the ETLs of major insect pests of rice?
- What are the factors favoring the spread of brown planthopper?
- What is the reason behind burning of leaf tips in some patches of the field and how to manage it?
- Some of the plants in the field are taller and thinner than others. How to control them?
- What is the difference between rice leaf blast and brown leaf spots?
- Some of the rice stems are wilting near the water line. What to do to manage the problem?
- How to manage fertilizers in order to keep rice crop safe from diseases?
- What can be done to prevent rice diseases to appear?
- How and when to do seed treatment?
- How to manage grain discoloration?
- How to reduce chances of aflatoxins production?
- What measures can be taken to keep rice clean from pesticide residues?
- Which chemicals are effective against rice disease?
- What is the proper stage and time of harvesting?
- What is drying? Define different methods of drying?
- What is rough rice?
- What is milling?
- What is brown rice?
- What is white rice?
- What is rice bran?
- What is rice bran oil and its significance?
- What is parboiled or “Sella” rice?
- How paddy is properly stored?
- What are safety measures to be adopted during storage?
|What is Basmati rice?||Top|
|Basmati is cylindrical long and extra-long grain rice grown in special areas of Kallar Tract falling in Punjab on both sides of Pakistani and Indian border having special characteristics Basmati aroma, intermediate amylose, intermediate gelatinization temperature and soft gel with about twice elongation upon cooking. It has special fluffiness and taste.|
|What is Long grain / Non-Basmati rice?||Top|
|Long-grain kernels are slender and three to four times as long as they are wide. The cooked grains are separate, firm, and fluffy making them suitable for dishes like pilafs and biryanis. It is rice, which is void of special characteristic aroma and taste. However, the other characters may be the same as basmati rice.|
|What is coarse/medium rice?||Top|
|Medium-grain rice has a shorter, wider kernel, whereas short-grain rice has a short, plump, almost round kernel. Both medium- and short-grain rices have cooked grains that are moist and tender and tend to cling together. Medium-grain rice is used for puddings.|
|What is hybrid rice?||Top|
Hybrid rice is the commercial rice crop grown from F1 seeds of a cross between two genetically dissimilar parents. Good rice hybrids have the potential of yielding 15-20% more than the best-inbred variety grown under similar conditions. To exploit the benefits of hybrid rice, farmers have to buy fresh seeds every cropping season.
Hybrid rice is any genealogy of rice produced by crossbreeding different kinds of rice. As with other types of hybrids, hybrid rice typically displays heterosis (or hybrid vigor) such that when it is grown under the same conditions as comparable high-yielding inbred rice varieties it can produce up to 30% more rice. High-yield crops, like hybrid rice, are one of the most important tools for combating world food crises.
|What are Rice Zones in Pakistan?||Top|
|Although rice can be cultivated throughout, the country starting from southern Sindh up to the highest altitude in the north but its cultivation is mainly concentrated in more or less four (4) distinct agro-ecological zones.|
|What type of rice varieties are being cultivated in Pakistan?||Top|
|Three types of rice varieties are being cultivated in Pakistan i.e. Basmati types – Indica (aromatic), medium long grain - Indica (IRRI type) and bold grain - japonica (cold tolerant varieties in zone – I). Basmati rice is famous throughout the world for its excellent cooking and eating qualities combined with very pleasant aroma. The medium long grain rice varieties are mostly cultivated in Sindh and give higher yield than Basmati varieties.|
|What are the approved varieties of rice?||Top|
|a. Basmati Varieties – Basmati 370, Basmati 198, Basmati Pak, Basmati 385, Super Basmati, Basmati 2000, Shaheen Basmati, Basmati 515. Punjab Basmati, Chenab Basmati, Kissan Basmati
b. Non-Basmati Varieties – PK 386, PK 1121 Aromatic.
c. Coarse or Medium Grain Varieties – IRRI 6, KS 282, KSK 133, KSK 434.
d. Hybrid Rice – Pukhraj, Arize, Shahanshah etc.
|What is the seed rate for Basmati and Coarse grain rice varieties?||Top|
|For Basmati varieties paddy seed rate is 4-5 Kg/acre while for Medium or Coarse varieties the recommended seed rate is 6-7 kg/acre. For hybrid rice, the seed rate is also 6-7 kg/acre.|
|What is the time of nursery sowing for coarse/medium and basmati varieties?||Top|
|The best nursery sowing time for coarse or medium grain varieties is from 20th May to June 7th while for Basmati varieties from 1st of June to 20th June is the best.|
|What are the different methods of nursery sowing?||Top|
|There are three different methods of nursery sowing followed in different areas according to their tradition and available resources.
a. Wet Bed Method:
It is commonly followed in the Punjab and KPK. The area, selected for nursery growing, is watered about 30 days before sowing. It helps in the eradication of weeds. When the weed seeds germinate after one week's interval, the field is ploughed twice, followed by planking every time and leveled with planking so that equal water is kept standing in the field. Clean seed is shifted into gunny bags and soaked in water for 24 hours. After soaking the seed is placed under shade and covered with gunny bags. The water is sprinkled over the seed after intervals and turned with hands about three times in a day for proper aeration and avoiding damage by heat due to suffocation. After about 36-48 hours, the seed is sprouted and is ready for sowing in the field. Sprouted seeds are then broadcast in the well-prepared seedbed.
b. Dry Bed Method:
The field is prepared under dry conditions, soaked seed is broadcasted, and a thin layer of farmyard manures is spread over the seed and then irrigated.
c. Rab Method:
In this method, prepared land is filled with farmyard manure (FYM) or paddy straw, keeping in mind that after burning a layer of one-inch ash should be left on seedbed. Burning of straw is generally done in the evening when wind is calm. This is kept as such to cool down. Next morning, the ash is mixed in the soil and seed is broadcasted and followed by irrigation.
|What is seed treatment in rice?||Top|
|For the control of Bakane and Brown Leaf Spot diseases, seed treatment is very effective. There are two methods for seed treatment. Apply fungicide @ 2.5 gm / 1 kg of seed evenly at least 15 days prior to nursery sowing. Second is take water 1.25 times of the quantity of seed, put the fungicide @ 2.5 gm / 1 kg of seed in it and dip the seed for 24 hours in this water. After 24 hour drain the water and put the seed under shade and cover it with jute bag for 36-48 hours so that the seed is germinated. This pre-germinated seed is then used for nursery sowing.|
|What are the different methods for field preparation for transplanting of nursery?||Top|
|Precise land leveling is very important for obtaining maximum paddy yield. Land is prepared according to the availability of water, time and soil type. It is prepared by three methods.
a. Complete Puddling of Soil:
Where water is abundantly available, flooding of soil is done 25-30 days before transplanting, ploughings & planking are done in frequent intervals During this process weeds seeds are allow to germinate through stoppage of irrigation but field should remain in saturated condition and do not dry up . This method is being practiced in the clay soils. Weeds problem is lesser in this method.
b. Partial Puddling:
Where water is not abundantly available, flooding of soil is made 8-10 days before transplanting ploughings and planking are done during this period. This method is becoming popular in the traditional rice growing areas due to shortage of irrigation water. Weeds are main problem in this method and these are to be controlled by using weedicides.
c. Dry Method:
In non-traditional areas of rice cultivation where water is scarce and soil type is loamy, this methods popular. In this method land is prepared in dry condition and then flooding is done before transplanting, two ploughings and one planking is done in flooded field before transplanting. Weeds are also major problem in this method and these are to be controlled by using weedicides.
|What is the proper age of nursery?||Top|
|The proper age of nursery for transplanting is 25-45 days. 25 days nursery is too delicate to absorb the uprooting shock while significant reduction in yield is noted if we use aged nursery i.e. more than 45 days. To avoid this sowing of nurseries with regular intervals according to the requirement of transplanting area and time. Try to sow two seedlings per hill for good crop stand and high yield.|
|What is the recommended plant population per acre?||Top|
|To get maximum paddy yield 80000 plant per acre are recommended. Tis can be achieved by maintaining a plant-to-plant and row to row distance of 22.5cm or 9 inches. However, at farmer’s fields plant population of 60000-65000 has been observed.|
|What is direct seeding of rice?||Top|
|Sowing of rice like sowing of wheat in watter soil.|
|What is mechanical sowing of rice?||Top|
|The specially grown nursery in trays transplanted in the field with the help of mechanical rice transplanter.|
|What are the recommended doses of fertilizers for Basmati and Coarse grain varieties? What is the proper time of application of different fertilizers?||Top|
The use of chemical fertilizers in adequate quantity and balanced form is important for getting the potential yield of rice. Generalized fertilizer recommendations are given below as a guide, which need to be adapted and tailored to specific situations in the light of local knowledge and experience.
For Basmati DAP = 1.5 bag, Urea 1.75 bags and 1 bag of Potash is recommended (All DAP and Potash + 1/3 Urea as basal dose + 1/3 Urea at 25-30 DAT + 1/3 Urea at 45-50 days after transplanting). For medium / coarse grain varieties DAP = 1.75 bag, Urea 2.25 bags and 1 bag of Potash is recommended (All DAP and Potash + half Urea as basal dose and half Urea after 30 days of transplanting). Use of Potash is recommended where tube well irrigation is the only source. In saline soils DAP and Urea should be replaced by SSP Ammonium sulphate for good yield. Zn application in transplanted crop is also recommended @ 5-10 kg/acre for zinc deficient soils.
|What is the irrigation/water requirement for rice crop?||Top|
About 5000 liter of water in traditional area and 2000 liters of water in non-traditional area is required for producing one Kg of rice. About 64 inches delta of water is required for rice crop. Failure of Monsoon Rains may cause more than 50% decrease in rice production.
If water is abundantly available than water level at transplanting should be kept 1-1.5 inches and gradually increased upto 3 inches. Water should be kept standing in the field upto 25-30 days after transplanting. After that, irrigation should be stopped for few days. Then apply 2nd dose of Urea fertilizer and irrigate the field. Keep the field in saturated condition. Irrigate the field after 3rd application of nitrogen. Irrigation should be stopped 15 days prior to harvesting.
If water is not abundantly available water level of the field at transplanting should be kept 1-1.5 inch. This level should be maintained up to 15-20 days after transplanting. After 15-20 days keep the field in saturated condition but apply irrigation after 2nd and 3rd nitrogen application. Granular pesticide should be applied in 2-3 inch standing water and maintain this level for 7 days. Irrigation should be stopped 15 days prior to harvesting.
|What are different weeds of rice crop?||Top|
|Weeds reduce yield 15-20% even sometimes upto 50%. Many annual and perennial weeds are present in the rice fields. The most important among those are as under:
Swanki (Echinochloa colona), Dhidden (Echinochloa crus galli), Narru (Paspalum distichum), Madhana (Dactyloetenium aegyptium) & Khabal (Cynodon dactylon), Ghora grass (Leptochloa chinensis) etc.
Della motha (Cyperus rotundus), Della bulrush (Scripus maritimus), Barri -ghoin (Cyperus difformis), Barri bhoin (Cyperus iria), Choti ghoin (Fimbristylis littoralis) and Choti bhoin (Fimbristylis dichotoma) etc.
Mirch booti (Sphenoclea zeylanica), Kutta kami (Nymphea stellata), Chopatti (Marsilea minuta) etc.
|What are the critical stages of weeds?||Top|
|Competition is most serious at the early stages of crop growth i.e. within the first 50 days. In this period, weed control measures must be adopted otherwise there can be substantial reduction in crop yield. It is important that rice crop should be kept free from weeds at least for the first 30 days. Thereafter, weeds would not affect paddy crop as much because vigorous plants of rice would suppress weed population. Thus, the most critical period is the first 30-40 days.|
|What are the control measures for weeds in nursery and standing crop?||Top|
Rauni Method, Puddling Method, weeds free rice seedlings, Water management, Crop rotation, Hand weeding, Rotary weeders, Burning of stubbles.
In chemical methods, selective herbicides are used to kill the weeds present in the rice crop. Most of the chemicals are used as pre- Emergence, only a few are used as post-emergence.
Weeds Control in Rice Nursery:
Apply any recommended weedicide e.g., Machete, Ronstar, Riffrt or Sunstar etc. to the puddled field in standing water one week before sowing of nursery and drain the field after 5 days. Then wash the field twice with fresh water in 2 days and broadcast the sprouted paddy seed in standing water.
Weed Control in Transplanted Rice:
Any recommended herbicides according to weed should be applied at 3-5 days after rice transplanting in 2-3 inch standing water. Care should be taken that water remains standing for one week and field should not dry during this period.
|What is IPM in rice?||Top|
A pest management philosophy that utilizes all suitable pest management techniques and methods to keep pest populations below economically injurious levels.
Cultural, mechanical, biological and chemicals control measures play an important role to minimize the yield losses with least impact on the environment.
|How to control different pests/ insects?||Top|
|Pest scout the rice field twice a week, if the population of insect pest reaches Economic threshold level (ETL) then use recommended insecticide as per instructions of the label.|
|What is insect injury?||Top|
|The physical harm to a commodity caused by the activity of a pest (e.g., eating leaves, tunneling through stalks, eating grain, etc.).|
|What is damage?||Top|
|The value (in rupees or utility) lost to the commodity as a result of pest injury (e.g., yield loss, quality reduction, etc.).|
|What is ETL?||Toop|
The pest density at which management action should be taken to prevent an increasing pest population from reaching the economic injury level.
The smallest number of pests (or injury) that will cause yield losses equal to the pest management costs.
|What is Economic Injury Level (EIL)?||Top|
|The smallest number of pests (or injury) that will cause yield losses equal to the pest management costs.|
|What are the ETLs of major insect pests of rice?||Top|
Use any one pesticide as per directions of label at following ETLs.
Rice Leaffolder: 02 rolled leaves per plant
|What are the factors favoring the spread of brown planthopper?||Top|
|What is the reason behind burning of leaf tips in some patches of the field and how to manage it?||Top|
|Burning of leaf tips and margins in strips is the main symptom of bacterial leaf blight disease. Small patches can be removed along with healthy neighboring plants and application of copper based chemicals can be effective to manage the disease.|
|Some of the plants in the field are taller and thinner than others. How to control them?||Top|
|Bakanae disease shows the symptoms of tallness and thinning of plants. Such plants should be removed immediately from the healthy crop and burnt or buried away from crop area.|
|What is the difference between rice leaf blast and brown leaf spots?||Top|
|Rice leaf blast has angular or eye-shaped lesions on the leaves, however brown leaf spots are circular in shape and have yellow halo around them.|
|Some of the rice stems are wilting near the water line. What to do to manage the problem?||Top|
|Stem rot disease causes wilting and lodging of the rice plants. In order to manage it, immediately remove the water and the keep changing the water level in the field.|
|How to manage fertilizers in order to keep rice crop safe from diseases?||Top|
|Apply nitrogenous fertilizers in three split doses. Apply 1 bag of potassium sulfate per acre to minimize the disease severity of blast and brown leaf spot.|
|What can be done to prevent rice diseases to appear?||Top|
|Seed treatment. Use of balanced fertilizers. Proper water and weed management. Insect management. One or two preventive sprays of recommended fungicides at active tillering and booting stages.|
|How and when to do seed treatment?||Top|
|Take 2-2.5 g of seed treatment fungicide per kg of seed and dissolve in 1 liter of water. Soak the seed for 24 hours and then sow them after drying.|
|How to manage grain discoloration?||Top|
|Proper management of rice diseases (bacterial leaf blight, rice blast, brown leaf spot) will reduce the chances of grain discoloration. Sprays of recommended fungicides at booting stage and before panicle emergence can also reduce disease severity.|
|How to reduce chances of aflatoxins production?||Top|
|Proper drying of paddy after harvest reduces the chances of aflatoxin production. Storage should be properly cleaned and fumigated before storing of paddy. Contaminated seed should not be stored with healthy seed. Seed treatment before storage also decrease the fungal attack on stored seed.|
|What measures can be taken to keep rice clean from pesticide residues?||Top|
|Strict implementation of Pre-Harvest Interval (PHI) of every pesticide will keep the rice clean from residues above their limits. The PHI is a function of a pesticide’s use pattern and of the amount of pesticide residues allowed on the crop at harvest.|
|Which chemicals are effective against rice disease?||Top|
|Use any one chemical as per directions of label:
Bacterial leaf blight
copper oxychloride, copper hydroxide, sulfur etc.
azoxystrobin + difenoconazole, trifloxystrobin + tebuconazole, validamycin + difenoconazole etc.
Brown Leaf spot
azoxystrobin + difenoconazole, trifloxystrobin + tebuconazole, validamycin + difenoconazole, difenoconazole etc.
azoxystrobin + difenoconazole, trifloxystrobin + tebuconazole, validamycin + difenoconazole, difenoconazole, sulfur etc.
|What is the proper stage and time of harvesting?||Top|
|Proper time of harvesting is about 35 days after flowering and moisture content at this time will be 20-22% when all grains are matured but 2-3 grains at bottom are still green, hard and are filled completely.|
|What is drying? Define different methods of drying?||Top|
|After harvesting and cleaning, paddy should be dried upto 14% moisture level and stored properly. There are different ways of paddy drying like sun drying - which is the cheapest and mechanical drying.|
|What is rough rice?||Top|
|Paddy or rough rice is the most original form of a rice kernel. After the harvest, rice is separated from the ear into individual grains. After drying, the end result is the Paddy, whose kernel is still inside the hull. After the milling process, the out hull is removed, along with the bran layer and the product becomes White rice.|
|What is milling?||Top|
|Milling is a process of removal of husk – threshing and polishing of the grain to get white rice.|
|What is brown rice?||Top|
|Similar to White rice, Brown rice belongs to the Indica (long-grain) category. The only difference between these two varieties is the milling; milling removes both the husk and the bran layer of the kernal. Through the milling process, Brown rice becomes White rice. As a result, in Brown rice, only the husk is removed while the bran layer remains. Because of the brand layer, Brown rice contains more nutrients than White rice. In particular, Brown rice is very high in fiber and vitamin B.|
|What is white rice?||Top|
|White rice belongs to the Indica (long grain) category. It is also known as polished rice or fully milled rice because most of the outer layers - the husk and the bran layer are removed from the kernel, through the milling process.|
|What is rice bran?||Top|
|Rice bran is a byproduct of the milling process. It constitutes nearly 7-8 % of the total rice grain. Although rice bran has considerable potential as a contributor to oil supply, it is seldom considered in the list of edible oil raw material resources. The full fat rice bran should be suitably treated after milling to deactivate the naturally occurring lipase enzymes which if untreated would rapidly deteriorates the oil in bran.|
|What is rice bran oil and its significance?||Top|
|The rice bran generally contains 15-20% oil. Rice bran oil has great nutritive value for direct consumption as edible oil. However, there are some problems like high free fatty acids that create setback for its marketing as edible oil.|
|What is parboiled or “Sella” rice?||Top|
Parboiled is rough rice that has gone through a steam-pressure process before milling. It is soaked, steamed, dried, and then milled to remove the outer hull. This procedure gelatinizes the starch in the grain, and is adopted at the mill in order to harden the grain, resulting in less breakage, thus ensuring a firmer, more separate grain. Parboiled rice is favored by consumers and chefs who desire extra fluffy and separate cooked rice.
Parboiled (basmati & non-basmati) rice is called “Sella” parboiling results in yellow rice with clear transparent grains is a result of parboiled the characters like chalkiness and aroma are eliminated but grains elongate more than the white rice during cooking. Parboiled rice has improved vitamin contents (more thiamine and nicotinic acid) and grain breaking is significantly reduced during milling process. Parboiled rice requires higher water/rice ratio than regular /white rice during cooking.
|How paddy is properly stored?||Top|
|Paddy can be stored in heaps or by filling in gunny bags and piling in concrete godowns. Steel bins or Silos are also being used effectively for storing paddy.|
|What are safety measures to be adopted during storage?||Top|
|There should be proper ventilation in godowns. Moisture and temperature of the gowdowns should be monitored regularly. Control measures should be adopted against rodents and stored grain insect like Rice weevil, Red flour beetle, Lesser grain borer, Paddy grain moth and Khapra beetle.|