Institute of Soil Chemistry & Environmental Sciences, Faisalabad


What is meant by Pesticide Residue? Top
Pesticide Residues are the remains of Pesticides, applied by the formers for plant   protection, existing inside or on the surface of the items in absorb form.  
What major health hazards are caused by the Pesticide Residues? Top
Health hazards associated with Pesticide Residues range from short term effects like skin irritation, eyes infection, Nausea, fever, headache to long term effects like lungs and kidney problem and cancer.  
What is reason behind Pesticide Residue in food? Top
Pesticide Residues are mainly caused by the none recommended use of Agricultural Pesticides on food commodities. Specially due to over dozing & improper application timing.  
What are the remedies to help avoid Pesticide Residues in food? Top
Pesticide should be applied strictly according to the departmental recommendations and/or the label instructions.  
What is the implication of Pesticide Residues regarding foreign trade? Top
According to the present scenario, commodities carrying Pesticide Residues above the Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) are strictly prohibited in modern international markets.  
What are the top five food commodities in Punjab which are highly effected with Pesticide Residues? Top
These top five commodities are Tomato, Chili, Bitter Guard, Sweet Paper and Tori.  
What are the top five food Pesticides whose residues are occurring in food commodities across in Punjab? Top
These top five Pesticides are Imidacloprid, Lufenuron, Carbandazim, Acetamiprid and Chlorpyrifos.  
What is effect of cooking process on Pesticide Residues? Top
Cooking process finds its food effectiveness in reducing Pesticide Residues in food commodities.  
What are meant by MRL values, PHI &PGI? Top
  • MRL stands for Maximum Residues Limit which is the highest allowable level of pesticides defined by the different agencies across the world.

  • PHIstands for pre-harvest interval after which the use of any pesticide application till harvesting is not recommended neither the crop should be harvested.

  • PGIstandsfor pre-grazing interval which is the time period after pesticide use on fodders during which grazing by animals should be avoided.

Is there any facility in province of Punjab for farmers/ exporters to get their produce checked for pesticide residues? Top
There is a Pesticide Residue Laboratory in Kala Shah Kaku working on the subject under Government of the Punjab, Agriculture Department.  
What is soil pH? Top
It is defined as –ve logarithm of hydrogen ion activity in a solution. It is the measure of acidity and alkalinity in soils.  
Why pH of soil is important in plant nutrition? Top
Availability of nutrients generally depends on soil pH and the nutrients which are required by most of the plants are available in a pH range of 6.5-7.5.  
What are essential nutrients? Top
A chemical element essentially required for the normal growth and reproduction of plants.  
How many nutrients are essential for plants? Top
There are twenty one 21 nutrients which are necessary for the growth of plants i.e. Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Sulfur, Boron, Chlorine, Copper, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Zinc, Cobalt, Silicon, Sodium, Vanadium and Nickel.  
What is soil fertility? Top
The ability of soil to provide nutrients to the plants for growth is called soil fertility.  
What are macronutrients? Top
The nutrients required by plants in large quantity are called macronutrients i.e. Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium.  
What are the secondary nutrients? Top
Calcium, Magnesium and sulfur are termed as secondary nutrients because they are rarely limiting and more rarely added to soil as fertilizers.  
What are micronutrients? Top
The nutrients required by plants in small quantity are called micronutrients i.e. Boron, Chlorine, Copper, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Zinc, Cobalt, Silicon, Sodium, Vanadium and Nickel.  
Why organic matter is important for soil fertility? Top
It stabilizes soil structure, improves aeration, porosity, infiltration and ultimately improves soil health.  
Why organic matter status of our soils is very low? Top
Organic Matter of our soil is low due to high temperature and low rainfall.  
What are the major sources of organic matter? Top
Farm Yard Manure, Humic acid, City Waste, Compost, Poultry Litter, Biochar and Press Mud.  
What is the different between organic and inorganic fertilizers? Top
Organic fertilizers are derived from living organisms such as animal and plants e.g. manures.
Inorganic fertilizers are man-made chemicals, formulated to improve soil fertility.
What is compost? Top
It is a mixture of organic residues and soil that have been piled up and allowed to undergo biological decomposition.  
What is humus? Top
A brown or black organic substance consisting of partially or wholly decayed vegetable or animal matter that provides nutrients for plants and increases the ability of soil to retain water.  
What is humic acid? Top
Humic acid is a principle component of humic substances which are the major organic constituents of soil (humus), peat and coal.  
What is urea? Top
It is a form of nitrogen fertilizers with Nitrogen 46%.  
What is DAP? Top
Di-ammonium phosphate is one of a series of water soluble ammonium phosphate salts that can be produced when ammonia reacts with phosphoric acid.  
What are the sources of potassium fertilizers? Top
Sources of potassium are as under:
  • Murate of potash (60% K)

  • Sulphate of potash (560% K)

What is the difference between soil application and foliar application of fertilizer? Top
Application of any fertilizing substance in a liquid form by spray is called foliar application and incorporation of fertilizers in soil is called soil application.  
What are the soil related problems in Pakistan? Top
Soil related problems are:
  • Salinity and sodicity

  • Water shortage

  • Low organic matter

  • High temperature

  • Calcareousness

  • High pH

Why soil pH of our soil are high? Top
In arid and semi arid environment where soil are rich in bases (calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium) and contain soluble carbonates and bi-carbonates which produces OH- , soil pH is high ranging from 7-10.  
Why P deficiency is most prominent in our soils? Top
In our soil Phosphorus react with soil calcium and form unsoluble compound.  
What is the role of soil texture for crop production? Top
Soil texture is responsible for the movement of air and water through the soil due to its pore space and size.  
What is C:N? Top
It is ratio of mass of carbon to mass of nitrogen in a substance. It serves as an indicator for nitrogen limitation of plants.  
Why micro-organisms are more important for soil fertility? #
Micro-organisms play a major role in the decomposition process and the formation of humus. The promote plant growth, produce plant hormones, fix nitrogen and facilitate mineralization.  
What is environmental pollution? Top
Environmental pollution is the contamination of the earth’s biological and physical components which include water, air and land. This leads to their depletion to an extent that normal environmental processes are seriously affected.  
What is nitrate leaching? Top
Downward movement of excess nitrate ions in soil freely with drainage water is called Nitrate Leaching.  
What are heavy metals? Top
The metals with high atomic #, weight and specific gravity more than 5 g/cm3 are called heavy metals. They include some metalloids, transition metals, basic metals, lanthanidse and actinides.  
Why nitrates are hazardous for human health? Top
High levels of nitrates in water can adversely affect oxygen level for both humans and aquatic system. Human health issue include blue baby syndrome.  
What is the green manuring? Top
It is practice of growing lush plants on the site into which you want to incorporate the organic matter than turning into the soil while it is still green.  
What is bio-fertilizer? Top
It is a substance which contains living micro-organisms, which when applied to soil increase the supply of primary nutrients to plants.  
What is integrated use of chemical fertilizer? Top
It is the application of organic and inorganic fertilizers in combination for plant growth.