Maize & Millets Research Institute, Yousafwala, Sahiwal


How many crops of maize can be sown in a year?


Two crops of maize can be successfully sown in a year. One in autumn season and 2nd in spring season.




What type of soil is required for growing of maize crop?


Heavy loam soil having pH of 7.5-8.0 is considered best for successful cultivation of maize.




How soil should be prepared for sowing of maize crop?


Soil should be prepared keeping in view of the previous crop sown. If there are stubbles of previous crop then Rotavator should be used once to break the stubbles. Normally 2-3ploughings along with planking are sufficient to prepare the normal soils. Soil should be laser leveled for uniform distribution of irrigation water, germination and plant growth.Before ridge making, the soil should be deep ploughed and well pulverizing. 




What is the optimum time of sowing for maize crop?


In autumn season sowing time is 15th of July to 15th of August while for spring crop it is 15th of January to end February.




What is the seed rate for sowing of maize crop?


8-10 Kg seed per acre for ridge sowing while 12-15 Kg seed per acre for drill/planter sowing is required.




Which are the best varieties of OPV’s and hybrids for obtaining maximum grain yield of maize?


MMRI Yellow, Pearl and Agaiti-2002 are best varieties of OPV’s while YH-1898, Yusafwala hybrid and FH-810 are the best hybrids of this Institute. Besides this there are many hybrids of various private companies available in the market.




What are the sowing methods for maize crop?


Ridge sowing in irrigated areas and line sowing in rainfed areas.




What should be the plant to plant and row to row distance for maize crop?


2.5 feet ridges andplant to plant distance 6 inches (one side sowingonly)
In rainfed areas, row to row 2.25-2.5 feet, plant to plant 8-9 inch after thinning at 3-4 leaves stage




How much Fertilizer is required for maize cop?


Different dose of fertilizer is required for OPV’s and hybrid for obtaining maximum grain yield.
In medium soils for OPV’s 87 Kg Nitrogen 46 Kg Phosphorus and 37 Kg Potash per acre and for hybrids 110 Kg Nitrogen, 58 Kg Phosphorus and 37 Kg Potash per acre is required for successful growing of maize crop.




What is the best time of fertilizer application?


In case of hybrid 58 Kg Phosphorus, 37 Kg Sulphate of Potash and 31 Kg Nitrogen at the time of sowing while remaining Nitrogen at 1-1.5 feet height of  plant 23 Kg, at 2.5-3.0 feet 23 Kg and remaining 23 Kg Nitrogen before flowering while for OPV’s 46 Kg Phosphorus, 37 Kg Sulphate of Potash and 18 Kg Nitrogen at sowing time, 23 Kg Nitrogen at 1-1.5 feet  height of  plant, 23 Kg at 2.5-3.0 feet  plant height, and 23 Kg before flowering should be applied in medium soil.




How much irrigation water is required for maize crop?


28-34 acre inches delta of water is required for maize crop. During Kharif season 10-11 irrigation frequencies and in spring season 12-13 irrigation frequencies are necessary for successful growing of maize crop.




Which are criticalstages of crop growth where irrigation water is more essential?


The following are critical stages of the crop where the irrigation water should not be missed at any cost. 

  • Seedling stage 

  • Grand growth stage.

  • Tasselling stage.

  • Silking stage.

  • Soft dough stage.

  • Hard dough stage.

Is thinning necessary in maize?  
In ridge planting thinning is not necessary due to single seed sowing while in line sowing thinning of weak, diseased and surplus plants is utmost necessary when the plants are 3-4 leaves stage.  
If weeds will not controlled properly in the field what will happen? Top
If weeds will not be got controlled then about 20-45 % yield losses may occur.  
What are controlling methods of weeds in maize crop? Top
Old method of weed control is hoeing manually or mechanically, while, weeds can be controlled, successfully by spraying weedicides early after sowing like S-metolachlor, Acetochlor, and pendimethalin.  
What are the insect pests of maize and how these can be controlled?  Top
Shoot-fly and stem borer are the major insect of maize. Shoot- fly can be control up to 40 days with seed treatment of Imidacloprid 70WS group @ 7.0 gm per Kg seed, while stem borer can be controlled with granule application of Carbofuran group @ 5-6 Kg per acre. However, army worm, American worm, termites, Jassid, aphid and mites may also attack the cop which should be controlled with proper sprays.  
What are the important diseases of maize and how these can be controlled? Top
Leaf blight and stalk rot are important diseases of maize which can be controlled with seed treatment of Thiophenate methyl @ 2.0 gm per Kg of seed as preventive measure. If occurs, then spray Mancoxeb @ 500 gm per acre.  
What are important weeds of maize crop? Top
There are two types of weeds which affect the yield of maize. These are broad leaved weeds i.e. Krund, Bathu, Tandla, Jangli Palak, Jangli Hallo, Dhodak, Kulfa, Lehli & Itsit. As far as the grasses or narrow leaved weeds i.e. Khuble, Madhana, Swnki, Baru & Deela are the major weeds.  
What is the proper harvesting time of maize crop? Top
When inner husks of the cobs become dry and grain become hard with grain moisture of 20-25%, the cobs should be picked after removing husks.  
What are the post-harvest measures for maize? Top
Harvested cobs should be spread on the flower in thin layer for sun drying. When the cobs become dry with grain moisture of 15%, then cobs should be shelled with the help of maize Sheller.  
What is suitable grain moisture for storing? Top
Grain moisture for storing is 10 % which can be achieved by sun drying in thin layer and turning them twice in a day for 1-3 days depending upon season & sun light. The clean grains should be stored in fumigated stores.