Entomological Research Institute, Faisalabad

Oil Seed Crops





Date Palm

Hill Fruits






What are the objectives of Directorate of Entomology? Top
  • Identification of insect  pest problems of field crops, fruits, vegetables and stored grains

  • Screening of promising lines against insect pests

  • Standardization of pesticides

  • Exploration of bio-control agents

  • Technology for higher honey production

  • Devise Integrated pest management strategies

  • Transfer of Plant Protection Technologies 

What are the entomological issues? Top
  • Wheat Aphid

  • Sucking Pests of Cotton

  • Sugarcane Borers

  • Vegetable Insect Pests

  • Insecticide Resistance

  • Stored Grain Insect Pests

  • Varroa Mite

Why entomology is important? Top
  • Entomology is the study of insects and their relationship to humans, the environment, and other organisms.

  • Entomologists make great contributions to such diverse fields as agriculture, chemistry, biology, human/animal health and  molecular science.

  • The study of insects serves as the basis for developments in biological and chemical pest control, food and fiber production and storage, pharmaceuticals epidemiology, biological diversity, and a variety of other fields of science.

  • Professional entomologists contribute to the betterment of humankind by detecting the role of insects in the spread of disease and discovering ways of protecting food and fiber crops, and livestock from being damaged.

  • They study the way beneficial insects contribute to the well-being of humans, animals, and plants.

What is the role of entomology in Agriculture? Top

Insect pests of crops cause heavy losses  to crops and reduce yield. By management of these pests, the yield of crops could be increased. eg., by controlling the insect pests of cotton, the yield could be increased from 9.526 to 14.289 Million Bales leading to an additional income of 369132.5 of rupees. Similarly the losses caused to sugarcane, cereals, stored grains, vegetables and fruits.


Oil Seed Crops

What are the major pests of sunflower? Top
Head moth, jassid, whitefly and armyworm  
What are the sucking insect pests of sunflower? Top
Jassid and whitefly  
What is the chemical control of insect pests of sunflower? Top
Lufenuron, spinosad, indoxcarb, flubendamide  
What is the role of biological control in sunflower? Top
Use of trichogramma cards for lepidopterouspests specially head moth  
What are the major pests of Gram? Top
Pod borer, cutworm , termite, aphid and semi-looper  
What are the sucking insects of Gram? Top
What is the chemical control of chewing insect on Gram? Top
Pyrethroids and new chemistry insecticides  
What is the role of biological control in Gram? Top
Not suitable or limited application of biological control  
What are IPM tactics against insect pests of Gram? Top
Resistant varieties, Timely sowing, destruction of weeds, need-based chemical control  


What are the major chewing insect pests of sugarcane? Top
Termites and borers  
What are the major sucking insect pests of sugarcane? Top
Sugarcane Pyrilla, black-bug, whitefly, mites and mealy-bug  
What is major threat to sugarcane? Top
Borers and termites  
What are the recommendations to control black bug? Top
  • Avoid ratooning in heavily infested areas

  • Irrigation of infested crop

  • Spray systemic insecticides (Imidacloprid, Dimethoate)

What are the recommendation of sucking insects in sugarcane? Top
Forpyrilla, flooding of chlorpyrifos and use of granuler insecticides plus augmentation of epipyrope (ectoparasite)  
What are the recommendations of boring insects in sugarcane? Top
Granular application in march-april and at the time of earthing up (june-july)  


What are major issues of wheat related to insect pests? Top
Wheat aphid  
At which stage of wheat Aphid appears? Top
Stem elongation and ear formation  
Which stage is most critical for Aphid damage? Top
Tillering,Earing, Dough stage  
What are the major recommendations to manage aphid? Top
Destroy alternate host, use of brassica strips ,seed treatment & border spray of minerals oils/botanicals  


What are the major chewing insect pests of citrus? Top
Lemon butterfly, leaf miner  
What  are the major sucking insect pests of citrus? Top
mealy bug, citrus psylla, whitefly, thrips, aphid  
What is major threat to citrus orchards & nursery? Top
Leaf minor citrus psyllafor nursery whereas citrus psylla,mealy bug and lemon butterfly for fresh/new growth/nursery  
What is the chemical control for citrus pests? Top
Systemic insecticides (Thiamethoxam,bifenthrin, carbosulfan, imidacloprid, Dimethoate)  
How fruit fly be controlled? Top
Pheromones, bait sprays, sanitation,ploughing/hoeing under trees to explore pupae, collection and destruction of infested fruits, chemical spray with trichlofon  


What are the major pest of Mango? Top
mealy bug,Hopper,Infloresensis midges, scales, thrips, fruit fly, termites, mites  
What is the chemical control of mealy bug? Top
Bifenthrin, lambda cyhalothrin, triazophos  
What is the cultural control of mango mealy bug? Top
Egg destruction, use of slippery bands, sticky bands  

Date Palm

What is the major pest of date palm? Top
Red palm weevil &Date palm scales  
What are control strategies of date palm scales? Top
Pruning of infested fronds, chemical control with systemic insecticides specially with triazophos, carbosulfan, dimethoate  

Hill Fruits

Which pest can cause maximum losses in apple crop and how can we control it? Top
Codling moth cause maximum losses and it can be controlled by chemical,mechanical,biological control methods.  
What is major problem in peaches and apricots? Top
Fruitfly and peach aphid.  


What are the major pests of rice? Top
Rice borers, leaf and plant hoppers, leaf forlders, ricehispa  
What is major problem on nursery? Top
Grasshopper and borers  
Management of nursery? Top
Dusting and granular insecticides  
Sucking pests? Top
  • Leaf hoppers and plant hoppers

  • resistant variety

  • granules also effective

  • if hopper burn, then use systemic insecticides,

  • for leaf folder, 1 or 2 sprays of pyrethroids



Pink bollworm is one of the most serious problems in cotton. How it can be managed? Top

Pink bollworm in cotton crop can be managed by

  • After last picking, grazing of sheep and goat

  • Early cutting of cotton sticks and destruction of bolls preset on these sticks.

  • Do not store keeps of cotton stick nearby or in the field.

  • Plucking and destruction on rose the flowers.

  • Destruction of cotton debris in ginning factories.

  • Destruction of double seed.

  • Spray recommended insecticides i.e. triazophos + delthamethrin or deltaphos.

How we can control Dusky cotton bug and re cotton bug in cotton crop? Top
After last picking of cotton apply the following chemicals with irrigation
Chlorpyriphos @ 2-2.5 L/ acre.
Malathion 50 EC @ 500 ml/ acre.
Endosulphon 35 EC @ 800 ml/ acre
kerosene oil @3-4 L/acre
How stink bugs damage the cotton crop? Top
Stink bugs puncture squares and bolls and cause young cotton bolls to drop; however, principal damage is to older bolls. On older bolls lint may be stained and matted, and seeds shrunken by stink bug feeding. Injured locks or bolls may fail to open. Stink bugs may also introduce bacteria and fungi that cause boll rots.  
What are pesticide hazards? Top
Pesticide hazards include acute, immediate toxicity to humans and other non-target organisms; chronic or long-term toxicity such as cancer; and potential to contaminate air, or ground and surface water.  Information on many of these potential hazards for specific pesticides can be found on pesticide labels. The adult human body is similarly contaminated with pesticides, pesticide-related compounds and other synthetic chemicals.  
What are the key pest (Insects and diseases) of cotton? Top
Whitefly, thrips, Jassid, mite, armyworm, american bollworm, spotted bollworm, pink bollworm, are the key insect pests.  


What is main constraint in cultivation of chickpea? Top
The damage due to Pod borer (Helicoverpaarmigera) as this may result in extensive or total loss during its outbreak.  
What are the major pests of tomato crop? Top
Tomato Fruit borer, aphid, whitefly and leaf miner  
Which are the common insects causing post harvest losses in maize and other grains? Top
Weevils and the larger grain borer (LGB) are the most common post harvest insect pests.  


Why the beekeepers provide sugar feeding to the bee colonies? Top
Sugar feed as supplemental food is necessary to honeybee colonies to stimulate a colony to develop brood, to forage.
  • To assist a colony over times of stress (disease).

  • To prevent starvation.

Which site is better for placing beehives? Top
When choosing a site for camping out apiary must make sure that:-
  • There is a source of water nearby.

  • There are plenty of flowering plants and trees in the area.

  • The hive is sheltered from wind.

  • The hive is shaded from strong sunlight.

  • The hive is not too near places where humans are likely to be.

  • The hive is not going to suffer from water dripping from overhead branches.

What is apiculture? Top
Apiculture mean culturing of bees or beekeeping in order to obtain honey.  
How become a beekeepers? Top
By receiveing the initial level of knowledge about beekeeping,through training or literature,one can become beekeeper.  
How to increase honey yield? Top
By adopting proper management techniques or by using proper beekeeping technology and protective measures.  
How the research station facilitate , while establishing a honey sale business, establishing bee colonies and beehives etc? Top
Research station can help by providing complete bee keeping training about starting beekeeping business point of view plus sale,marketing.etc.  
How many types of the honeybees are? Top
There are four types of honeybees available ieapisdorsata.apismellifere,apisflorea,apiscerana.  
Is the honey made by Apismellifera(chotimakhi) is of better quality then the honey of other honeybees? Top
No, it is not proved.  
What is the cost of initiating the business of beekeeping? Top
Atleast  50,000  to 100000 rps  
From where we can get bees and beekeeping equipments? Top
Different suppliers available in their rerspective cities iemr. bee company ,m aslamawan,arshadjameel khan etc.