Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute, Faisalabad FAQs

 

What is Agricultural Biotechnology?

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A range of tools, including traditional breeding techniques, that alter living organisms, or parts of organisms, to make or modify products; improve plants or animals; or develop microorganisms for specific agricultural uses. Modern biotechnology today includes the tools of genetic engineering.

 

 

 

Bt crops?

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Crops that are genetically engineered to carry a gene from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). The bacterium produces proteins that are toxic to some pests but non-toxic to humans and other mammals. Crops containing the Bt gene are able to produce this toxin, thereby providing protection for the plant. Bt corn and Bt cotton are examples of commercially available Bt crops. 

 

 

 

What is Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)?

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A technique using antibodies for detecting specific proteins. Used to test for the presence of a particular genetically engineered organism. 

 

 

 

What is Genetic engineering?

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Manipulation of an organism's genes by introducing, eliminating or rearranging specific genes using the methods of modern molecular biology, particularly those techniques referred to as recombinant DNA techniques. 

 

 

 

Genetically modified organism (GMO)?

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An organism produced from genetic engineering techniques that allow the transfer of functional genes from one organism to another, including from one species to another. Bacteria, fungi, viruses, plants, insects, fish and mammals are some examples of organisms whose genetic material has been artificially modified to change some physical property or capability. Living modified organisms (LMOs) and transgenic organisms are other terms often used instead of GMOs.

 

 

 

What is Genomics?

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The mapping and sequencing of genetic material in the DNA of a particular organism as well as the use of that information to better understand what genes do, how they are controlled, how they work together, and what their physical locations are on the chromosome.

 

 

 

What is Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)?

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A technique used to create a large number of copies of a target DNA sequence of interest. One use of PCR is in the detection of DNA sequences that indicate the presence of a particular genetically engineered organism. 

 

 

 

What is a Genetic marker?

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A DNA sequence at a unique physical location in the genome, which varies sufficiently between individuals that its pattern of inheritance can be tracked through families and/or it can be used to distinguish among cell types. A marker may or may not be part of a gene. Markers are essential for use in linkage studies and genetic maps to help scientists to narrow down the possible location of new genes, and to discover the associations between genetic mutations and disease.

 

 

 

What is Gene mapping? 

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Determining the relative physical locations of genes on a chromosome. Useful for plant and animal breeding.

 

 

 

What is meant by Tissue culture?

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A general term used to describe the culture of cells, tissues or organs in a nutrient medium under sterile conditions.

 

 

 

What is Callus?

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 A mass of thin-walled, undifferentiated plant cells, developed as the result of culture on nutrient media.

 

 

 

What is a Clone?

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Group of plants genetically identical in which all are derived from one selected individual by vegetative or in-vitro propagation, without the sexual process.

 

 

 

Embryo culture?

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In vitro development or maintenance of isolated mature or immature embryos. 

 

 

 

What is Meristem culture?

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In vitro culture of a generally shiny, dome-like structure measuring less than 0.1 mm in length when excised, most often excised from the shoot apex. 

 

 

 

What is Somaclonal variation?

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Phenotypic variation, either genetic or epigenetic in origin, displayed among somaclones.